Department of Labor Trade Release re: OSHA Fix

OSHA Form 300-A to be Submitted through the Injury Tracking Application (ITA) Online Portal by July 1, 2018

According to a U.S. Department of Labor Trade Release Dated April 30, 2018, by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), titled “U.S. Department of Labor Fixes Error Dating to 2016 Implementation of ‘Improve Tracking of Workplace Injuries and Illnesses’ Regulation” notice was given that OSHA had taken action to correct an error made with regard to implementation of the final rule.  

Data is to be Submitted through the ITA Online Portal

OSHA determined that Section 18 (c) (7) of the Occupational Safety and Health Act and relevant OSHA regulations pertaining to State Plans, require all affected employers to submit injury and illness data in the Injury Tracking Application (ITA) online portal even if the employer is covered by a State Plan that has not completed adoption of their own state rule.

Employers are Required to Submit Form 300-A through the ITA Online Portal by July 1, 2018

According to the above-mentioned Department of Labor Trade Release by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regarding the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970:

  • “OSHA immediately notified State Plans and informed them that for Calendar Year 2017 all employers covered by State Plans will be expected to comply” (with submitting data through the ITA Portal).  
  • “An employer covered by a State Plan that has not completed adoption of a state rule must provide Form 300-A data for Calendar Year 2017.  Employers are required to submit their data by July 1, 2018” (through the ITA Online Portal).
  • “There will be no retroactive requirement for employers covered by State Plans that have not adopted a state rule to submit data for Calendar Year 2016” (through the ITA Online Portal).


OSHA Form 300A – By Premium Reduction Center Blog

OSHA Form 300A requirement by the Premium Reduction Center

OSHA Form 300A posting deadline February 1, 2018 This month, all employers required to keep Form 300, the Injury and Illness Log, should be reviewing the Log to verify that entries are complete and accurate and correcting any deficiencies. The annual summary of injuries and illnesses recorded on OSHA Form 300A, Summary of Work-Related Injuries […]

via OSHA alert – Recordkeeping changes — Premium Reduction Center Blog

Origin of May Day | Bombing of Haymarket Square on May 4, 1886

International Labors Day – May 1 each year

According to the NIST Institute, May 1st of every year is known as International Labors Day and is dedicated to paying tribute to the Workers. 

It is also known as “May Day” and “International Workers Day,” and is a National Holiday in India and at least 80 other countries. 





Origin of May Day

May Day originated by Labor Unions of the United States and Canada  in 1886 when on May 1st, the U.S. Labor Movement went on Strike to support an 8 hour work day and have better pay. 


Bombing of Haymarket Square on May 4, 1886

According to Wikipedia,  

“The Haymarket Affair was the aftermath of a bombing that took place at a labor demonstration on Tuesday, May 4, 1886, at Haymarket Square in Chicago. 

“It began as a peaceful rally in support of workers striking for an eight-hour day and in reaction to the killing of several workers the previous day by the police.  An unknown person threw a dynamite bomb at police as they acted to disperse the public meeting.”

The parties  to the civil conflict were the Federation of Organized Trades and Labor Unions (resulting in 4 deaths and 70+ injured) and the Chicago Police Department (resulting in 7 deaths and 60 injured).

President Grover Cleveland – 22nd and 24th President of U.S.

According to Wikipedia,

“Stephen Grover Cleveland was the 22nd and 24th Present of the United States, the only president in American history to serve two non-consecutive terms in office (1885-89 and 1893-97) . . . President Cleveland launched the Progressive Era.”

President Grover Cleveland Signed 8 Hour Work Day Into Law

President Grover Cleveland signed the 8 hour work day into law in 1894 as a result of the strike that occurred in 1886. 

U.S. and  Canada Celebrate Labor Day September 1st

The United States and Canada observe Labor Day on September 1st each year while most of the world celebrate Labor Day on May 1st.

Haymarket Massacre in Chicago as Origin of May Day

According to Wikipedia, “The Haymarket Affair is generally considered significant as the origin of International May Day observances for workers.” 

According to labor studies Professor, William J. Adelman:

“No single event has influenced the history of labor in Illinois, the United States, and even the world more than the Chicago Haymarket Affair.  It began with a rally on May 4, 1886, but the consequences are still being felt today.  Although the rally is included in American history textbooks, very few present the event accurately or point out its significance.”

Four Boring Foam Studies

Four Boring Foam Studies:

1)     Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, Vol. 27, No. 3, 1990, Pages, 229-238,“Load-bearing Characteristics of Polyethylene Foam:  An Examination of Structural and Compression Properties,” written by Eric J. Kuncir, MSBE;  Roy. W. Wirta, BSME;  Frank L. Golbranson, M.D.:   This work was supported by a grant entitled:  “Foot Interface Pressure Study,” from the Department of Veterans Affairs Rehabilitation Research and Development Service and was conducted at the DVA Medical Center, San Diego, California, U.S.A.”

“The use of cellular foams in the orthotics and prosthetics industries is widespread and ranges from applications as shoe insole material to prosthetic limb inserts.

“It is our impression that orthotic and prosthetic practitioners select interface materials, including cellular foams, in an arbitrary fashion based on availability and personal knowledge.

“Contributing to the arbitrariness of material selection is a lack of published information on detailed mechanical properties of cellular foams . . . We have studied the structural and compression properties of cellular foams.

“This discussion is relevant to orthotists and prosthetists because it addresses an overview of the properties of cellular foams, the knowledge of which may be useful in the determination of the function of a particular foam material in load-bearing applications.”

“Cellular polyethylene foams are best described as a mass of bubbles composed of a plastic and a gas phase.  The polymer is distributed in the walls of the bubbles and the lines where the buttles intersect (Blair, E.A., 1967).

“The bubbles are referred to as cells, the lines of intersection are called ribs or strands, and the walls are called windows . . . Depending on the configuration of this two phase gas/solid system and on the synthetic material used, cellular plastics exhibit a wide range of mechanical properties.”


“In general, two major descriptions are offered to characterize structural features of cellular materials.

“An open cell material is one which has open windows leaving many cells interconnected in such a manner that gas may pass from one cell to another.

“Alternatively, closed cell materials are made up of discrete cells through which gasses do not pass freely.”

“A physical test of the mechanical behavior of a material can be done by continuously measuring the force required to develop a degree of compression.  This information is useful because it aids in an evaluation of a foam’s response under load-bearing conditions.”

Compression data or polyethylene foam obtained by Skochdopole, 1965, in which compressive load versus percent compression for polyethylene foams of increasing open cell character was plotted.

The data show that compressive load of polyethylene foam increases as fraction of open cells decreases.

“When there is a small fraction of open cells, the compression force is distributed over a larger number of cell walls and ribs thereby increasing the compressive resistance.

“At larger degrees of compression, the data presented indicates that compressive load increases as the fraction of open cells decreases . . . This implies that foams of increased open cell character must provide less resistance to escape of gasses, which explains the reduction in compression resistance as open cell character increases.”

“It can be concluded that the influence of cell geometry on the mechanical properties of cellular foams is significant.  Specifically, increased compression strength is acquired as the cell diameter decreases.  In addition, decreasing the fraction of open cells increases the required force for a given degree of compression.”

“Closed cell polyethylene foam materials exhibit both time-related and non-time-related properties under load-bearing conditions.  The non-time-related properties happen under rapid cyclic loading conditions . . . The time-related properties happen when a load is sustained either a static load or an extended period of cyclic loading.”

2)     Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, Vol. 27, No. 2, 1990, “Reduction of Sitting Pressures with Custom Contoured Cushions,”  written by Stephen Sprigle, Ph.D.; Kao-Chi Chung, Ph.D.;  Clifford E. Brubaker, Ph.D., University of Virginia Rehabilitation Engineering Center, U.S.A.:
The authors state the following:
“Previous research indicated that matching a cushion to the shape of the buttocks results in less tissue distortion and lower interface pressures.”
“Material studies were determined by examining the load-deflection curves for flat foams of 1, 2, and 3 inch thickness.”
“It was found that sitting on contoured foam resulted in a lower pressure distribution than sitting on flat foam; and sitting on soft foam resulted in a lower pressure distribution than sitting on a stiffer foam.”
“Loaded contoured foam demonstrated increased enveloping of the buttocks, decreased foam compression, and a more uniform pressure distribution.  These attributes are typical of a safer sitting surface and may indicate less disuse distortion.”

The authors make the following statements:


“Wheelchair users often sit 12 to 16 hours a day while participating in daily activities . . . special seating support especially for spinal cord injured (SCI) persons and others with insensate skin.”
“Over the past three decades, many studies have focused on the biomechanical aspects of decubitus formation.  Tissue trauma is now recognized as a multidimensional process with externally applied pressure being identified as a primary contributing factor, (Bennett, L.; Kanner, D.; Lee, B. K.; and Trainor, F.A., 1979; Krouskop, T.A., 1983).”


“Recently, tissue distortion has also been identified as a potentially damaging condition, (Chung, K.C., 1987; Swart, M.E., 1985).”
“These two risk factors are related because distortion results from the external forces being exerted on soft tissue.”
“The original analysis of contact stresses was published in 1881 by Heinrich Hertz.”


3)     American Journal of Nursing, 1987,“Sitting Easy:  How Six Pressure-Relieving Devices Stack Up”:   written by Robin Chagares, R.N., M.A., M.S.N.; and Bettie S. Jackson, RN, Ed.D., F.A.A.N., Montefiore Medical Center, N.Y., U.S.A.:

The authors open with the following statements (1987 prices):


 “A single pressure sore costs more than $8,000 to heal.  Multiply that cost by more than a million hospital and nursing home patients who will develop pressure sores this year, and you see why preventing skin breakdown is a health care priority, (Hargast, T., 1979; Staggs, K., 1983).”


The authors include the following findings:

“A number of intrinsic (within the body) factors such as:
·        immobility,
·        poor circulation,
·        malnutrition,
·        and elderly skin contribute to the development of pressure sores.


“The only extrinsic (coming from outside the body) factor is pressure.”

“A healthy individual can develop pressure sores in six to twelve hours if left undisturbed in the same position, (Hargast, T., 1979; Staggs, K., 1983; Torrence, C., 1981).”

6 Pressure­-Relieving Devices Tested:

·        air doughnut pillow;
·        water donut  pillow;
·        Eggcrate cushion;
·        Spencegel pad;
·        Sheepskin;
·        Cotton-filled disposable pillow


“Of the six different pressure-relieving devices studied, the air donut was least effective in reducing inter surface pressures.  In addition, subjects reported it to be quite uncomfortable to sit on.

People Should Have More Than 1 Pressure-Relieving Device

All the other devices reduced inter-surface pressure about equally . . . having more than one pressure relieving device to choose from allows selection based on individual patient comfort.

“Pressure on capillaries (the smallest blood vessels) over time leads to tissue necrosis (degeneration.)  None of the devices tested minimized sitting surface pressures generated when sitting in one position.  To prevent tissue damage, people must be able to shift their weight or be assisted to alternate pressure points.”

4)     J.  Biomechanics.  Vol.  15, No. 7, 1982, “Model Experiments to Study the Stress Distributions on a Seated Buttock,” Narender P. Reddy, Himanshu Patel, George Van B. Cochran, Biomechanics Research Unit, Helen Hayes Hospital; and John B. Brunski, Center for Biomedical Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, Ny, U.S.A.:
Buttock Stress States During Sitting

    “Mechanical stress states that develop in the buttock during sitting may exceed tissue tolerance and lead to decubitus ulcer formation in susceptible patients, such as those with spinal cord injury.
“The danger of this complication can be reduced by using suitable cushions to minimize stress magnitudes and gradients within soft tissues.
“In this investigation, a two-dimensional physical model of the buttock-cushion system was developed to aid in cushion design.”

5 Materials Selected for Initial Tests

“Although many cushion materials are in current commercial use, the following five representative materials were selected for these initial tests:

1)    Gel;
2)    Medium density foam;
3)    Soft foam;
4)    Stiff foam;
5)    Viscoelastic ‘T-Foam.’”

“In order of increasing maximum compressive stress generated in the buttock model, the material samples of equal thickness can be ranked as follows:

1)    Medium density foam;
2)    Soft foam;
3)    Gel;
4)    Viscoelastic foam;
5)    Stiff foam.”

“The enveloping property of a seat cushion is a measure of its tendency to wrap around the object it supports, (i.e., in the present case, the buttock model).  A good enveloping cushion provides a large contact area and a uniform stress distribution, (Chow, 1974; Cochran and Palmieri, 1979).’

What is Your Inclination . . . (ergonomically)?

The Scandinavian Journal of Rehab. Medicine 15:197-203, 1983. “Posture of the Trunk when Sitting on Forward-Inclining Seats,” written by Tom Bendix and Fin Biering-Sorensen from The Laboratory for Back Research, University of Copenhagen, Denmark:

Forward Inclination & Lumbar Lordosis

The above-mentioned study states: “Changes in posture during one hour of sitting were measured by a statometric method on 10 subjects. Four seats were used, one horizontal and three with forward inclinations respectively of 5 degrees, 10 degrees, and 15 degrees. With increasing forward inclination of the seat, the spine moved toward lumbar lordosis.”

Note: Lumbar lordosis is the natural curve of the lumbar spine explained as increased curving of the lumbar spine (which can become flattened when leaning forward while seated on a flat surface, called kyphosis).

Body’s Adaption to Seat Inclination

“A supplementary sample showed that 1/3 of the body’s adaptation to the seat inclination took place in the spine and 2/3 in the hip joints. A tendency to a more vertical position of the trunk as a whole was observed on the 5 degree chair but the posture of the cervical (neck) spine was not influenced by the seat inclination. . .a comfort evaluation showed the 5 degree forward inclination and the horizontal seats to be preferred.”

Previous Studies & Backwards Inclination

The above-mentioned study goes on to discuss the findings of previous studies: “Many investigators (Akerblom, B., 1948; Grandjean, E., 1975; Keegan, J., 1953; Ollefs, H., 1951; Schubert, H., 1962) recommend that the seat surface should be inclined about 5 degrees backwards; one has even suggested 15 degrees backwards, (Rizzi, M., 1969). Others suggest that the seat should be almost horizontal, (Kroemer, K. H. E., 1971; Peters, T., 1969); and in some committees (Comite Europeen de Normalisation, 1979; Engdahl, S., 1971; ISO: Draft International Standard ISO/DIS 5970), a range from 0 degrees to 4 to 5 degrees backwards had been suggested.”

Previous Studies & Forward Inclination

“Another body of opinion focuses on the possible advantages of a forward inclination of either the whole seat (Burandt, U., 1969; Drescher, E.W., 1929; Laurig, W., 1969; Mandal, A.C., 1970 and 1981; Schlegel, K.F., 1940; Staffel, F. 1884), the posterior part (Burandt, U. & Grandjean, E., 1964; Schneider, H.J., et al., 1961), or the anterior half, (Jurgens, H.W. 1969).”

Tiltable Inclination

“Mandal suggests a tiltable seat from -5 degrees (backwards) to +15 degrees (forward); and Kroemer (1971) suggests an adjustable seat slope between -6 degrees (backwards) and +6 degrees (forward), to make it possible to changes the position for different tasks.”

Purpose of Study

“The purposes of the above-mentioned study were:
1. “To compare spontaneously chosen posture when sitting for one hour on each of the four seat inclinations — horizontal, 5 degrees, 10 degrees, and 15 degrees forward — and to estimate the adaptability of the trunk and hip joints to different forward inclinations of the seat.
2. “To follow the changes of the spinal curves during one hour of sitting on one seat.
3. “To evaluate comfort in relation to the different seat inclinations.”

Tiltable Office Chair Furnished to Study Subjects

“To accustom the subjects to a forward-inclining seat, their homes were furnished with a tiltable office chair at least two weeks before the experiment. The seat could tilt from 5 degrees backwards to 15 degrees forwards . . . to ensure that the thighs conformed to the seat surface, height adjustment was effectuated by placing the seat at first a little too high, with the legs hanging freely, and later lowering it until the feet rested on the floor with the lower part of the legs vertical. Approximately 2/3 of the thighs were resting on the seat.

Preference for Horizontal & 5 Degree Inclination

“At the end of the period of sitting, all subjects were asked to estimate the degree of comfort on each specific seat inclination, using a scale from 1 (poor) to 5 (excellent.). The same scale was used to rate the tillable chair they had used for two weeks in their home. The comfort evaluation that was done in the above-mentioned study, “shows a preference for the 0 degree and the 5 degree inclinations.”

Study Evaluation of Tiltable Seat

“The corresponding comfort evaluation of the office chair with the tiltable seat, which the subjects had in their homes, was of the median 3.5 (5 execellent to 1 poor) (range 1-5).”

Increasing Inclination = Advantageous for Lordosis

“With increasing seat inclination forward, the spine changed towards lumbar lordosis. Almost all authors claim such a change as an advantage when sitting, (Akerblom, B., 1948; Burandt, U. & Grandjean, E., 1964; Jurgens, H.W., 169; Schlegel, K.F., 1940; Schneider, H.J. & Lippert, H., 1961; and Snorrason, E., 1955; Staffel, F., 1884).”