Department of Labor Trade Release re: OSHA Fix

OSHA Form 300-A to be Submitted through the Injury Tracking Application (ITA) Online Portal by July 1, 2018

According to a U.S. Department of Labor Trade Release Dated April 30, 2018, by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), titled “U.S. Department of Labor Fixes Error Dating to 2016 Implementation of ‘Improve Tracking of Workplace Injuries and Illnesses’ Regulation” notice was given that OSHA had taken action to correct an error made with regard to implementation of the final rule.  

Data is to be Submitted through the ITA Online Portal

OSHA determined that Section 18 (c) (7) of the Occupational Safety and Health Act and relevant OSHA regulations pertaining to State Plans, require all affected employers to submit injury and illness data in the Injury Tracking Application (ITA) online portal even if the employer is covered by a State Plan that has not completed adoption of their own state rule.

Employers are Required to Submit Form 300-A through the ITA Online Portal by July 1, 2018

According to the above-mentioned Department of Labor Trade Release by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regarding the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970:

  • “OSHA immediately notified State Plans and informed them that for Calendar Year 2017 all employers covered by State Plans will be expected to comply” (with submitting data through the ITA Portal).  
  • “An employer covered by a State Plan that has not completed adoption of a state rule must provide Form 300-A data for Calendar Year 2017.  Employers are required to submit their data by July 1, 2018” (through the ITA Online Portal).
  • “There will be no retroactive requirement for employers covered by State Plans that have not adopted a state rule to submit data for Calendar Year 2016” (through the ITA Online Portal).

 

OSHA Form 300A – By Premium Reduction Center Blog

OSHA Form 300A requirement by the Premium Reduction Center

OSHA Form 300A posting deadline February 1, 2018 This month, all employers required to keep Form 300, the Injury and Illness Log, should be reviewing the Log to verify that entries are complete and accurate and correcting any deficiencies. The annual summary of injuries and illnesses recorded on OSHA Form 300A, Summary of Work-Related Injuries […]

via OSHA alert – Recordkeeping changes — Premium Reduction Center Blog

Beyond the costs of an injury — BWC Blog

A good read about prevention of injury and the need to address health disparities.

By Mark Leung, BWC Technical Medical Specialist, Recently promoted from the BWC Safety & Hygiene Fellowship program Occupational health and safety has been a public health focus for many years. Emphasizing worker protection and well-being advances the overall goal of reducing negative health outcomes in the future. The need to address health disparities within the […]

via Beyond the costs of an injury — BWC Blog

Driving is Risk Factor for Low Back Pain

Occupational Medicine, Vol. 48, No. 3., pp. 153-160, 1998, “Musculoskeletal Problems and Driving in Police Officers,” written by D. E. Gyi and J. M. Porter, Vehicle Ergonomics Group, Department of Design and Technology, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, United Kingdom:

In the above-mentioned study, the Occupational Health Department of a rural police force in the United Kingdom had concerns with relation to driving and its link to musculoskeletal disorders.

“There are now an increasing number of researchers whose work implicates prolonged exposure to car driving as a risk factor for low back pain.  However, such epidemiological studies examining the relationship between car driving and back pain or other musculoskeletal troubles are difficult to conduct.  Driving as a task involves prolonged sitting, a fixed posture, and vibration, any of which could directly lead to musculoskeletal trouble.  It is likely that symptoms arise from multiple relationships and influences, (Rey, P., 1979).”

“These police drivers are also deemed to be at particular risk because of the following:

  • They are generally tall males and wear bulky clothing such that seat adjustment may be insufficient to obtain a good posture.
  • They drive fleet cars where the seat and suspension are exposed to excessive wear and tear.
  • They often have to drive in rapid response situations such that they are exposed to fast acceleration and deceleration.
  • Driving is often followed by strenuous physical activity such as lifting and running.
  • They spend most of their eight-hour shift driving or sitting in their vehicle.
  • They often have to take back-seat passengers, such that tall males are unable to take advantage of any seat adjustments that do exist.”

“In a survey of 2,000 U.S. police officers, the number and types of health disorders reported b these officers over a 6-month period were similar to those found in the general public over a 12 month period, (Hurrel, J., 1984).”

The results of the above-mentioned study agree with the findings of other studies that indicate driving a car is a risk factor for the development of low back pain.

OSHA News

OSHA Safe and Sound Week

U.S. Department of Labor
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
Office of Communications
202-693-1999
Department of Labor, United States of America
Mark Your Calendars!
Safe + Sound Week 2018 to be held August 13 – 19

Safe and Sound Week 2018 logo
We are pleased to announce the date for the 2018 Safe + Sound Week, August 13-19.

The second annual Safe + Sound Week is a nationwide effort to raise awareness of the value of workplace safety and health programs. These programs can help employers and workers identify and manage workplace hazards before they cause injury or illness, improving a company’s financial bottom line.

Throughout this week, organizations are encouraged to host events and activities that showcase the core elements of an effective safety and health program, including: management leadership, worker participation, and finding and fixing workplace hazards.

Visit the Safe + Sound Week webpage for more information and stay tuned for additional updates, resources, and webinars to help prepare you for Safe + Sound Week!

SHOW your commitment by sharing the save the date graphic on social media using #safeandsound2018.

For More Information go to http://www.dol.gov

If you belong to a membership organization, nonprofit organization, or educational institution, there is an opportunity to partner with OSHA on the campaign. Individual businesses can also become campaign supporters. Neither partnering nor supporting the campaign has a financial obligation. Contact safeandsoundcampaign@dol.gov to become a partner or business supporter.

Thank you for receiving updates from the Safe + Sound Campaign.

Organized by:

Safe and Sound Week 2018 organizers
______________________________________________________________________________________________

U.S. Department of Labor news materials are accessible at http://www.dol.gov. The department’s Reasonable Accommodation Resource Center converts departmental information and documents into alternative formats, which include Braille and large print. For alternative format requests, please contact the department at (202) 693-7828 (voice) or (800) 877-8339 (federal relay).

What is Your Inclination . . . (ergonomically)?

The Scandinavian Journal of Rehab. Medicine 15:197-203, 1983. “Posture of the Trunk when Sitting on Forward-Inclining Seats,” written by Tom Bendix and Fin Biering-Sorensen from The Laboratory for Back Research, University of Copenhagen, Denmark:

Forward Inclination & Lumbar Lordosis

The above-mentioned study states: “Changes in posture during one hour of sitting were measured by a statometric method on 10 subjects. Four seats were used, one horizontal and three with forward inclinations respectively of 5 degrees, 10 degrees, and 15 degrees. With increasing forward inclination of the seat, the spine moved toward lumbar lordosis.”

Note: Lumbar lordosis is the natural curve of the lumbar spine explained as increased curving of the lumbar spine (which can become flattened when leaning forward while seated on a flat surface, called kyphosis).

Body’s Adaption to Seat Inclination

“A supplementary sample showed that 1/3 of the body’s adaptation to the seat inclination took place in the spine and 2/3 in the hip joints. A tendency to a more vertical position of the trunk as a whole was observed on the 5 degree chair but the posture of the cervical (neck) spine was not influenced by the seat inclination. . .a comfort evaluation showed the 5 degree forward inclination and the horizontal seats to be preferred.”

Previous Studies & Backwards Inclination

The above-mentioned study goes on to discuss the findings of previous studies: “Many investigators (Akerblom, B., 1948; Grandjean, E., 1975; Keegan, J., 1953; Ollefs, H., 1951; Schubert, H., 1962) recommend that the seat surface should be inclined about 5 degrees backwards; one has even suggested 15 degrees backwards, (Rizzi, M., 1969). Others suggest that the seat should be almost horizontal, (Kroemer, K. H. E., 1971; Peters, T., 1969); and in some committees (Comite Europeen de Normalisation, 1979; Engdahl, S., 1971; ISO: Draft International Standard ISO/DIS 5970), a range from 0 degrees to 4 to 5 degrees backwards had been suggested.”

Previous Studies & Forward Inclination

“Another body of opinion focuses on the possible advantages of a forward inclination of either the whole seat (Burandt, U., 1969; Drescher, E.W., 1929; Laurig, W., 1969; Mandal, A.C., 1970 and 1981; Schlegel, K.F., 1940; Staffel, F. 1884), the posterior part (Burandt, U. & Grandjean, E., 1964; Schneider, H.J., et al., 1961), or the anterior half, (Jurgens, H.W. 1969).”

Tiltable Inclination

“Mandal suggests a tiltable seat from -5 degrees (backwards) to +15 degrees (forward); and Kroemer (1971) suggests an adjustable seat slope between -6 degrees (backwards) and +6 degrees (forward), to make it possible to changes the position for different tasks.”

Purpose of Study

“The purposes of the above-mentioned study were:
1. “To compare spontaneously chosen posture when sitting for one hour on each of the four seat inclinations — horizontal, 5 degrees, 10 degrees, and 15 degrees forward — and to estimate the adaptability of the trunk and hip joints to different forward inclinations of the seat.
2. “To follow the changes of the spinal curves during one hour of sitting on one seat.
3. “To evaluate comfort in relation to the different seat inclinations.”

Tiltable Office Chair Furnished to Study Subjects

“To accustom the subjects to a forward-inclining seat, their homes were furnished with a tiltable office chair at least two weeks before the experiment. The seat could tilt from 5 degrees backwards to 15 degrees forwards . . . to ensure that the thighs conformed to the seat surface, height adjustment was effectuated by placing the seat at first a little too high, with the legs hanging freely, and later lowering it until the feet rested on the floor with the lower part of the legs vertical. Approximately 2/3 of the thighs were resting on the seat.

Preference for Horizontal & 5 Degree Inclination

“At the end of the period of sitting, all subjects were asked to estimate the degree of comfort on each specific seat inclination, using a scale from 1 (poor) to 5 (excellent.). The same scale was used to rate the tillable chair they had used for two weeks in their home. The comfort evaluation that was done in the above-mentioned study, “shows a preference for the 0 degree and the 5 degree inclinations.”

Study Evaluation of Tiltable Seat

“The corresponding comfort evaluation of the office chair with the tiltable seat, which the subjects had in their homes, was of the median 3.5 (5 execellent to 1 poor) (range 1-5).”

Increasing Inclination = Advantageous for Lordosis

“With increasing seat inclination forward, the spine changed towards lumbar lordosis. Almost all authors claim such a change as an advantage when sitting, (Akerblom, B., 1948; Burandt, U. & Grandjean, E., 1964; Jurgens, H.W., 169; Schlegel, K.F., 1940; Schneider, H.J. & Lippert, H., 1961; and Snorrason, E., 1955; Staffel, F., 1884).”

6 Hours Sitting May Cause Pressure Sore

SITTING & PRESSURE
By Darren Salinger, M.D., OB/GYN
& Melanie Loomos, Inventor

In modern society, sitting takes up an increasing amount of time, both at home and at work. It has been concluded there is a considerable shift to sedentary work in industrialized countries (3).

1881 Analysis of Contact Stresses

The original analysis of contact stresses which lead to pressure-related problems while sitting was published in 1881 by Heinrich Hertz (5).

6 Hours Sitting May Cause Pressure Sore

A healthy individual can develop a pressure sore in six to twelve hours if left undisturbed in the same position (7). A single pressure sore costs more than $8,000 to heal. The yearly costs of treating pressure sores and related problems have been estimated to be almost $1 billion (9).

One study found that 63 percent of patients who sat for an unlimited period of time developed pressure sores whereas only 7 percent of patients developed pressure sores who sat for maximum periods of two hours (1).

Limiting sitting time is only one starting point in preventing pressure sores. Other possibilities include appropriate posture and pressure-reducing seat cushions (1).

In a test of six pressure-relieving devices, the air doughnut was found to be the least effective in reducing inter-surface pressures. None of the devices tested eliminated the inter-surface pressures generated by sitting in one position (7).

To prevent tissue damage, people must be able to shift their weight or be assisted to alternate pressure points (7).

External Pressure = 1/2 Internal Pressure

Externally measured pressure under the butt bones is only one half of the internal pressure. Given the pressures that are prevalent, Staarink (1995) found it amazing that more people do not get pressure ulcers (1).

Risk Factors for Pressure Sores

Studies have implicated factors such as posture and posture changes, impact loading of tissue, elevated temperature and humidity, age, nutritional status, general health, activity level, body stature and shear stress in the development of pressure sores (4).

Shear Force & Pressure Sores

The interest in shear stems from the observation that shear increases the possibility of causing a pressure sore (6). In 1958, it was Reichel who started to focus attention on shear force, which is defined as a force parallel to a surface (2). It is important to reduce shear force as much as possible (6). Avoidance of shear force is as important as avoidance of direct pressure (8).

Snijders (1984) showed that the inclination and the position of a backrest as well as the angle of the seat surface influence the shear force on the seat (3). The proper combination of backrest and seat inclination can reduce shear forces on the seat and on the sitter.

In tests done on healthy young subjects, it was found that when little shear is accepted, a fixed inclination between seat and backrest should be chosen between 90 degrees and 95 degrees (3). When a person is sitting down, the weight of the body is distributed over the supporting surfaces. The distributed shear and pressure result in forces that act on four major body points:
▪ The Feet
▪ The Butt Bones
▪ The Top of the Hip Bones
▪ The Chest

Shear Stresses Reduced – 90N to 5N

In a study measuring shear stresses on wheelchairs, using healthy young subjects, different seat angles were tested. Previous measurements showed that a total shear force on the seat of a foldable wheelchair could become as high as 90N when the seat is horizontal (2). When the seat slant is 8 degrees forward, the shear force becomes smaller than 5N in healthy subjects (2). The assumption is made that if the unfavorable effect of shear stress can be measured in healthy, young subjects, the effect for the hospitalized geriatric and paraplegic population will be even worse (2).

Enveloping Cushion

The enveloping property of a seat cushion is a measure of its tendency to wrap around the object it supports. When the body adopts a sitting posture, the weight of the body is distributed over the supporting surfaces (3). A good enveloping cushion provides a large contact area and a uniform stress distribution (9).

Medium density foam results in the lowest shear stresses and compressive stresses tested. Soft foam results in the next lowest shear and compressive stresses because soft foam tends to “bottom out” and cause pressure from the surface below the foam.

Caution: Temperature Sensitive Foam

Researchers caution against materials in seat surfaces that react to body temperature because there is a risk of rising temperatures and increased humidity which can lead to pressure sores (1), as well as other pressure-related problems.

Researchers conclude that the use of armrests in the case of healthy persons has a very limited pressure-reducing effect but may help stabilize posture.

  1. Applied Nursing Research, Vol. 12, No. 3, August 1999, pp. 136-142, “Sitting Posture and Prevention of Pressure Ulcers,” written by Tom Defloor, MScN, N.N.; and Maria H.F. Grypdonck, Ph.D., RN, Nursing Sciences, University of Gent, Belgium.
  2.  Scandinavian Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 29: 131-136, 1997, “Shear Stress Measured on Beds and Wheelchairs,” written by R.H.M. Goossens, Ph.D.; C.J. Snijders, Ph.D., T.G. Holscher, Mac; W. Chr. Heerens, Ph.D.; and A. E. Holman, MSc.
  3.  Journal of Biomechanics, Vol. 28, No. 2, pp. 225-230, 1995, “Design Criteria for the Reduction of Shear Forces in Beds and Seats,” written by R.H.M. Goossens and C.J. Snijders, Erasmus University, Rotterdam, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biomedical Physics and Technology, The Netherlands.
  4. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, Vol. 29, No. 4, 1992, pp. 21 – 31, Department of Veterans Affairs, “Comparative Effects of Posture on Pressure and Shear at the Body-Seat Interface,” written by Douglas A. Hobson, Ph.D., School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, P.A. U.S.A.
  5.  Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, Vol. 27, No. 2, 1990, pp. 135 – 140, Department of Veterans Affairs, “Reduction of Sitting Pressures with Custom Contoured Cushions,” written by Stephen Sprigle, Ph.D.; Kao-Chi Chung, Ph.D.; Clifford E. Brubaker, Ph.D., University of Virginia, Rehabilitation Engineering Center, U.S.A.
  6.  Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, Vol. 27, No. 3, 1990, pp. 239 – 246, Department of Veterans Affairs, “Sitting Forces and Wheelchair Mechanics,” written by Paul Gilsdorf, B.S.; Robert Patterson, Ph.D.; Steven Fisher, M.D.; Nancy Appel, P.T., Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Minnesota, U.S.A.
  7.  American Journal of Nursing, 1987, “Sitting Easy: How Six Pressure-Relieving Devices Stack up,” written by Robin Charges, RN, M.A., M.S.N.; and Bettie S. Jackson, RN, Ed.D., F.A.A.N., Montefiore Medical Center, N.Y., U.S.A.
  8.  Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil., Vol. 60, July, 1979, “Shear vs. Pressure as Causative Factors in Skin Blood Flow Occlusion,” written by Leon Bennett, MAE; David Kavner, DEng; Bok K. Lee, M.D.; Frieda A. Trainor, Ph.D., Veterans Administration Prosthetic Center, N.Y., U.S.A.
  9.  J. Biomechanics, Vol. 15, No. 7, 1982, “Model Experiments to Study the Stress Distributions in a Seated Buttock,” Narender P. Reddy, Himanshu Patel, George Van B. Cochran, Biomechanics Research Unit, Helen Hayes Hospital; and John B. Brunski, Center for Biomedical Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, N.Y., U.S.A.