Dyspareunia | Elevation of the Perineum with thebuttpillow — thebuttpillow (TM)

What is Dyspareunia? Dyspareunia (difficult mating) is defined as genital pain that occurs before, during, or after intercourse. This is not a well understood condition, and it can be lifelong or acquired. If dyspareunia has not always been present, it usually occurs ten years after the start of sexual activity. How Common is Dyspareunia? “Dyspareunia […]

via Dyspareunia | Elevation of the Perineum with thebuttpillow — thebuttpillow (TM)

Driving is Risk Factor for Low Back Pain

Occupational Medicine, Vol. 48, No. 3., pp. 153-160, 1998, “Musculoskeletal Problems and Driving in Police Officers,” written by D. E. Gyi and J. M. Porter, Vehicle Ergonomics Group, Department of Design and Technology, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, United Kingdom:

In the above-mentioned study, the Occupational Health Department of a rural police force in the United Kingdom had concerns with relation to driving and its link to musculoskeletal disorders.

“There are now an increasing number of researchers whose work implicates prolonged exposure to car driving as a risk factor for low back pain.  However, such epidemiological studies examining the relationship between car driving and back pain or other musculoskeletal troubles are difficult to conduct.  Driving as a task involves prolonged sitting, a fixed posture, and vibration, any of which could directly lead to musculoskeletal trouble.  It is likely that symptoms arise from multiple relationships and influences, (Rey, P., 1979).”

“These police drivers are also deemed to be at particular risk because of the following:

  • They are generally tall males and wear bulky clothing such that seat adjustment may be insufficient to obtain a good posture.
  • They drive fleet cars where the seat and suspension are exposed to excessive wear and tear.
  • They often have to drive in rapid response situations such that they are exposed to fast acceleration and deceleration.
  • Driving is often followed by strenuous physical activity such as lifting and running.
  • They spend most of their eight-hour shift driving or sitting in their vehicle.
  • They often have to take back-seat passengers, such that tall males are unable to take advantage of any seat adjustments that do exist.”

“In a survey of 2,000 U.S. police officers, the number and types of health disorders reported b these officers over a 6-month period were similar to those found in the general public over a 12 month period, (Hurrel, J., 1984).”

The results of the above-mentioned study agree with the findings of other studies that indicate driving a car is a risk factor for the development of low back pain.

Four Boring Foam Studies

Four Boring Foam Studies:

1)     Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, Vol. 27, No. 3, 1990, Pages, 229-238,“Load-bearing Characteristics of Polyethylene Foam:  An Examination of Structural and Compression Properties,” written by Eric J. Kuncir, MSBE;  Roy. W. Wirta, BSME;  Frank L. Golbranson, M.D.:   This work was supported by a grant entitled:  “Foot Interface Pressure Study,” from the Department of Veterans Affairs Rehabilitation Research and Development Service and was conducted at the DVA Medical Center, San Diego, California, U.S.A.”

“The use of cellular foams in the orthotics and prosthetics industries is widespread and ranges from applications as shoe insole material to prosthetic limb inserts.

“It is our impression that orthotic and prosthetic practitioners select interface materials, including cellular foams, in an arbitrary fashion based on availability and personal knowledge.

“Contributing to the arbitrariness of material selection is a lack of published information on detailed mechanical properties of cellular foams . . . We have studied the structural and compression properties of cellular foams.

“This discussion is relevant to orthotists and prosthetists because it addresses an overview of the properties of cellular foams, the knowledge of which may be useful in the determination of the function of a particular foam material in load-bearing applications.”

“Cellular polyethylene foams are best described as a mass of bubbles composed of a plastic and a gas phase.  The polymer is distributed in the walls of the bubbles and the lines where the buttles intersect (Blair, E.A., 1967).

“The bubbles are referred to as cells, the lines of intersection are called ribs or strands, and the walls are called windows . . . Depending on the configuration of this two phase gas/solid system and on the synthetic material used, cellular plastics exhibit a wide range of mechanical properties.”

OPEN CELL VS. CLOSED CELL FOAMS

“In general, two major descriptions are offered to characterize structural features of cellular materials.

“An open cell material is one which has open windows leaving many cells interconnected in such a manner that gas may pass from one cell to another.

“Alternatively, closed cell materials are made up of discrete cells through which gasses do not pass freely.”

“A physical test of the mechanical behavior of a material can be done by continuously measuring the force required to develop a degree of compression.  This information is useful because it aids in an evaluation of a foam’s response under load-bearing conditions.”

Compression data or polyethylene foam obtained by Skochdopole, 1965, in which compressive load versus percent compression for polyethylene foams of increasing open cell character was plotted.

The data show that compressive load of polyethylene foam increases as fraction of open cells decreases.

“When there is a small fraction of open cells, the compression force is distributed over a larger number of cell walls and ribs thereby increasing the compressive resistance.

“At larger degrees of compression, the data presented indicates that compressive load increases as the fraction of open cells decreases . . . This implies that foams of increased open cell character must provide less resistance to escape of gasses, which explains the reduction in compression resistance as open cell character increases.”

“It can be concluded that the influence of cell geometry on the mechanical properties of cellular foams is significant.  Specifically, increased compression strength is acquired as the cell diameter decreases.  In addition, decreasing the fraction of open cells increases the required force for a given degree of compression.”

“Closed cell polyethylene foam materials exhibit both time-related and non-time-related properties under load-bearing conditions.  The non-time-related properties happen under rapid cyclic loading conditions . . . The time-related properties happen when a load is sustained either a static load or an extended period of cyclic loading.”

2)     Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, Vol. 27, No. 2, 1990, “Reduction of Sitting Pressures with Custom Contoured Cushions,”  written by Stephen Sprigle, Ph.D.; Kao-Chi Chung, Ph.D.;  Clifford E. Brubaker, Ph.D., University of Virginia Rehabilitation Engineering Center, U.S.A.:
The authors state the following:
“Previous research indicated that matching a cushion to the shape of the buttocks results in less tissue distortion and lower interface pressures.”
“Material studies were determined by examining the load-deflection curves for flat foams of 1, 2, and 3 inch thickness.”
“It was found that sitting on contoured foam resulted in a lower pressure distribution than sitting on flat foam; and sitting on soft foam resulted in a lower pressure distribution than sitting on a stiffer foam.”
“Loaded contoured foam demonstrated increased enveloping of the buttocks, decreased foam compression, and a more uniform pressure distribution.  These attributes are typical of a safer sitting surface and may indicate less disuse distortion.”

The authors make the following statements:

TISSUE TRAUMA

“Wheelchair users often sit 12 to 16 hours a day while participating in daily activities . . . special seating support especially for spinal cord injured (SCI) persons and others with insensate skin.”
“Over the past three decades, many studies have focused on the biomechanical aspects of decubitus formation.  Tissue trauma is now recognized as a multidimensional process with externally applied pressure being identified as a primary contributing factor, (Bennett, L.; Kanner, D.; Lee, B. K.; and Trainor, F.A., 1979; Krouskop, T.A., 1983).”

TISSUE DISTORTION VS. TISSUE TRAUMA

“Recently, tissue distortion has also been identified as a potentially damaging condition, (Chung, K.C., 1987; Swart, M.E., 1985).”
“These two risk factors are related because distortion results from the external forces being exerted on soft tissue.”
“The original analysis of contact stresses was published in 1881 by Heinrich Hertz.”

 

3)     American Journal of Nursing, 1987,“Sitting Easy:  How Six Pressure-Relieving Devices Stack Up”:   written by Robin Chagares, R.N., M.A., M.S.N.; and Bettie S. Jackson, RN, Ed.D., F.A.A.N., Montefiore Medical Center, N.Y., U.S.A.:

The authors open with the following statements (1987 prices):

PREVENTING SKIN BREAKDOWN IS A PRIORITY

 “A single pressure sore costs more than $8,000 to heal.  Multiply that cost by more than a million hospital and nursing home patients who will develop pressure sores this year, and you see why preventing skin breakdown is a health care priority, (Hargast, T., 1979; Staggs, K., 1983).”

INTRINSIC FACTORS

The authors include the following findings:

“A number of intrinsic (within the body) factors such as:
·        immobility,
·        poor circulation,
·        malnutrition,
·        and elderly skin contribute to the development of pressure sores.

EXTRINSIC FACTOR(S)

“The only extrinsic (coming from outside the body) factor is pressure.”

“A healthy individual can develop pressure sores in six to twelve hours if left undisturbed in the same position, (Hargast, T., 1979; Staggs, K., 1983; Torrence, C., 1981).”

6 Pressure­-Relieving Devices Tested:

·        air doughnut pillow;
·        water donut  pillow;
·        Eggcrate cushion;
·        Spencegel pad;
·        Sheepskin;
·        Cotton-filled disposable pillow

RESULTS

“Of the six different pressure-relieving devices studied, the air donut was least effective in reducing inter surface pressures.  In addition, subjects reported it to be quite uncomfortable to sit on.

People Should Have More Than 1 Pressure-Relieving Device

All the other devices reduced inter-surface pressure about equally . . . having more than one pressure relieving device to choose from allows selection based on individual patient comfort.

“Pressure on capillaries (the smallest blood vessels) over time leads to tissue necrosis (degeneration.)  None of the devices tested minimized sitting surface pressures generated when sitting in one position.  To prevent tissue damage, people must be able to shift their weight or be assisted to alternate pressure points.”

4)     J.  Biomechanics.  Vol.  15, No. 7, 1982, “Model Experiments to Study the Stress Distributions on a Seated Buttock,” Narender P. Reddy, Himanshu Patel, George Van B. Cochran, Biomechanics Research Unit, Helen Hayes Hospital; and John B. Brunski, Center for Biomedical Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, Ny, U.S.A.:
Buttock Stress States During Sitting

    “Mechanical stress states that develop in the buttock during sitting may exceed tissue tolerance and lead to decubitus ulcer formation in susceptible patients, such as those with spinal cord injury.
“The danger of this complication can be reduced by using suitable cushions to minimize stress magnitudes and gradients within soft tissues.
“In this investigation, a two-dimensional physical model of the buttock-cushion system was developed to aid in cushion design.”

5 Materials Selected for Initial Tests

“Although many cushion materials are in current commercial use, the following five representative materials were selected for these initial tests:

1)    Gel;
2)    Medium density foam;
3)    Soft foam;
4)    Stiff foam;
5)    Viscoelastic ‘T-Foam.’”

“In order of increasing maximum compressive stress generated in the buttock model, the material samples of equal thickness can be ranked as follows:

1)    Medium density foam;
2)    Soft foam;
3)    Gel;
4)    Viscoelastic foam;
5)    Stiff foam.”

“The enveloping property of a seat cushion is a measure of its tendency to wrap around the object it supports, (i.e., in the present case, the buttock model).  A good enveloping cushion provides a large contact area and a uniform stress distribution, (Chow, 1974; Cochran and Palmieri, 1979).’

What is Your Inclination . . . (ergonomically)?

The Scandinavian Journal of Rehab. Medicine 15:197-203, 1983. “Posture of the Trunk when Sitting on Forward-Inclining Seats,” written by Tom Bendix and Fin Biering-Sorensen from The Laboratory for Back Research, University of Copenhagen, Denmark:

Forward Inclination & Lumbar Lordosis

The above-mentioned study states: “Changes in posture during one hour of sitting were measured by a statometric method on 10 subjects. Four seats were used, one horizontal and three with forward inclinations respectively of 5 degrees, 10 degrees, and 15 degrees. With increasing forward inclination of the seat, the spine moved toward lumbar lordosis.”

Note: Lumbar lordosis is the natural curve of the lumbar spine explained as increased curving of the lumbar spine (which can become flattened when leaning forward while seated on a flat surface, called kyphosis).

Body’s Adaption to Seat Inclination

“A supplementary sample showed that 1/3 of the body’s adaptation to the seat inclination took place in the spine and 2/3 in the hip joints. A tendency to a more vertical position of the trunk as a whole was observed on the 5 degree chair but the posture of the cervical (neck) spine was not influenced by the seat inclination. . .a comfort evaluation showed the 5 degree forward inclination and the horizontal seats to be preferred.”

Previous Studies & Backwards Inclination

The above-mentioned study goes on to discuss the findings of previous studies: “Many investigators (Akerblom, B., 1948; Grandjean, E., 1975; Keegan, J., 1953; Ollefs, H., 1951; Schubert, H., 1962) recommend that the seat surface should be inclined about 5 degrees backwards; one has even suggested 15 degrees backwards, (Rizzi, M., 1969). Others suggest that the seat should be almost horizontal, (Kroemer, K. H. E., 1971; Peters, T., 1969); and in some committees (Comite Europeen de Normalisation, 1979; Engdahl, S., 1971; ISO: Draft International Standard ISO/DIS 5970), a range from 0 degrees to 4 to 5 degrees backwards had been suggested.”

Previous Studies & Forward Inclination

“Another body of opinion focuses on the possible advantages of a forward inclination of either the whole seat (Burandt, U., 1969; Drescher, E.W., 1929; Laurig, W., 1969; Mandal, A.C., 1970 and 1981; Schlegel, K.F., 1940; Staffel, F. 1884), the posterior part (Burandt, U. & Grandjean, E., 1964; Schneider, H.J., et al., 1961), or the anterior half, (Jurgens, H.W. 1969).”

Tiltable Inclination

“Mandal suggests a tiltable seat from -5 degrees (backwards) to +15 degrees (forward); and Kroemer (1971) suggests an adjustable seat slope between -6 degrees (backwards) and +6 degrees (forward), to make it possible to changes the position for different tasks.”

Purpose of Study

“The purposes of the above-mentioned study were:
1. “To compare spontaneously chosen posture when sitting for one hour on each of the four seat inclinations — horizontal, 5 degrees, 10 degrees, and 15 degrees forward — and to estimate the adaptability of the trunk and hip joints to different forward inclinations of the seat.
2. “To follow the changes of the spinal curves during one hour of sitting on one seat.
3. “To evaluate comfort in relation to the different seat inclinations.”

Tiltable Office Chair Furnished to Study Subjects

“To accustom the subjects to a forward-inclining seat, their homes were furnished with a tiltable office chair at least two weeks before the experiment. The seat could tilt from 5 degrees backwards to 15 degrees forwards . . . to ensure that the thighs conformed to the seat surface, height adjustment was effectuated by placing the seat at first a little too high, with the legs hanging freely, and later lowering it until the feet rested on the floor with the lower part of the legs vertical. Approximately 2/3 of the thighs were resting on the seat.

Preference for Horizontal & 5 Degree Inclination

“At the end of the period of sitting, all subjects were asked to estimate the degree of comfort on each specific seat inclination, using a scale from 1 (poor) to 5 (excellent.). The same scale was used to rate the tillable chair they had used for two weeks in their home. The comfort evaluation that was done in the above-mentioned study, “shows a preference for the 0 degree and the 5 degree inclinations.”

Study Evaluation of Tiltable Seat

“The corresponding comfort evaluation of the office chair with the tiltable seat, which the subjects had in their homes, was of the median 3.5 (5 execellent to 1 poor) (range 1-5).”

Increasing Inclination = Advantageous for Lordosis

“With increasing seat inclination forward, the spine changed towards lumbar lordosis. Almost all authors claim such a change as an advantage when sitting, (Akerblom, B., 1948; Burandt, U. & Grandjean, E., 1964; Jurgens, H.W., 169; Schlegel, K.F., 1940; Schneider, H.J. & Lippert, H., 1961; and Snorrason, E., 1955; Staffel, F., 1884).”

Hemorrhoids, History & the Western World

Hemorrhoids

Hemorrhoids are one of the most frequent problems people in westernized countries face. There are estimates of up to 75 to 90 percent occurrence rates of hemorrhoids in the U.S. population (1, 2, 3, 4, 5). An estimated 50 percent of those over the age of 50 years require some type of conservative or operative therapy (4).

The cost to the community, both financial and in lost work days, is great; and by any standards, this condition must be considered a major health hazard (7).

Seating & Hemorrhoids

Preventative measures to reduce risk factors for the development of hemorrhoids should be taken before it is too late. It is important to minimize external compression from poorly designed seating as much as possible. External compression from poorly designed seating concentrates forces on small areas of the body. This results in high localized pressure. The pressure can compress nerves, vessels, and other soft tissues, resulting in tissue-specific damage. These changes may themselves result in disease or predispose other tissues to damage.

U.S. History & Hemorrhoids

Hemorrhoids have plagued men and women for centuries, inflicting pain equally on individuals at all levels of society and of all occupations: Emperors (Napoleon); U.S. Presidents (Jimmy Carter); baseball sluggers (George Brett); judges; policemen; truck and cab drivers; and jockeys (6).

Ancient History & Hemorrhoids

It has been said that Napoleon’s hemorrhoids were troubling him during the battle of Waterloo (7).

Proctology flourished as a specialty in Ancient Egypt. The surgical treatment of hemorrhoids was practiced in Ancient Greece, and Hippocrates suggested that the cause could be attributed to bile and phlegm (8).

The Western World vs. The Third World & Hemorrhoids

Today, hemorrhoids are considered to be one of the most common ills of men and women, a judgment made by those with vision limited to the Western World (7).

The high rate of hemorrhoids in westernized societies contrasts sharply with Third World countries. Only about one in 25 to one in 30 individuals is thought to have hemorrhoids as compared to one in two individuals in Westernized societies. One doctor recounted in 30 years’ practice in Africa, one of the only two patients he saw with severe hemorrhoids was a prince taking a semi-European diet (5, 7).

1) Primary Care, Volume 26, Number 1, March, 1999, “Hemorrhoids,” by Joy N. Hussain, M.D., Cairns Base Hospital, Australia.
2) Family Medicine Principles & Practices, 1998, Fifth Edition: Chapter 91, “Diseases of the Rectum and Anus,” by Thomas J. Zuber.
3) MJA, Vol. 167, July, 1997, Clinical Practice, “Hemorrhoids: A Clinical Update,” written by Adrian L. Polglase, M.S., FRACS, Clinical associate Professor and Colorectal Surgeon, Australia.
4) American Family Physician, September 1, 1995, “Non-surgical Treatment Options for Internal Hemorrhoids, written by John Pfenninger, M.D., and James Surrel, M.D.
5) Surgical Clinics of North America, Vol. 65, No. 6, December, 1988, “Hemorrhoids, Non-operative Management,” written by A. R. Dennison, M.D.; D.C., Wherry, M.D.; and D.L. Morris, M.D., Ph.D.
6) Southern Medical Journal, Vol. 81, No. 5, May, 1988, “Alternatives in the Treatment of Hemorrhoidal Disease,” by Emmet F. Ferguson, Jr., M.D., University of Florida, School of Medicine, Jacksonville, F.L., U.S.A.
7) Postgraduate Medical Journal, September, 1975, 51, 631-636, “Hemorrhoids – Postulated Pathogenesis and Proposed Prevention,” written by D. P. Burkitt, C.M.G., M.D., F.R.C.S., F.R.S., and C.W. Graham-Stewart, MS, F.R.C.S.
8) The American Journal of Proctology, Vol. 21, No. 3, June 1970, “An Epidemiological Investigation of Hemorrhoids, written by John Philpot, Ph.D., Rutgers, The State University, New Jersey, U.S.A.

Driving = Risk factor for Low Back Pain

Occupational Medicine, Vol. 48, No. 3., pp. 153-160, 1998, “Musculoskeletal Problems and Driving in Police Officers,” written by D. E. Gyi and J. M. Porter, Vehicle Ergonomics Group, Department of Design and Technology, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, United Kingdom:

In the above-mentioned study, the Occupational Health Department of a rural police force in the United Kingdom had concerns with relation to driving and its link to musculoskeletal disorders.

“There are now an increasing number of researchers whose work implicates prolonged exposure to car driving as a risk factor for low back pain.  However, such epidemiological studies examining the relationship between car driving and back pain or other musculoskeletal troubles are difficult to conduct.  Driving as a task involves prolonged sitting, a fixed posture, and vibration, any of which could directly lead to musculoskeletal trouble.  It is likely that symptoms arise from multiple relationships and influences, (Rey, P., 1979).”

“These police drivers are also deemed to be at particular risk because of the following:

  • They are generally tall males and wear bulky clothing such that seat adjustment may be insufficient to obtain a good posture.
  • They drive fleet cars where the seat and suspension are exposed to excessive wear and tear.
  • They often have to drive in rapid response situations such that they are exposed to fast acceleration and deceleration.
  • Driving is often followed by strenuous physical activity such as lifting and running.
  • They spend most of their eight-hour shift driving or sitting in their vehicle.
  • They often have to take back-seat passengers, such that tall males are unable to take advantage of any seat adjustments that do exist.”

“In a survey of 2,000 U.S. police officers, the number and types of health disorders reported b these officers over a 6-month period were similar to those found in the general public over a 12 month period, (Hurrel, J., 1984).”

The results of the above-mentioned study agree with the findings of other studies that indicate driving a car is a risk factor for the development of low back pain.

Too Much Press Made Me A Target / I Am Back & Looking for a Manufacturer

The “featured image” is me with me with Anka in the background when we were on Deco Drive.  They wanted to interview her anyway because she had just been in Playboy.

When I got my second patent, the Ergonomic Seating Cushion, which I called the Buttpillow, the name was so shocking that I ended up on TV and the cover of the Miami Herald Business Section, and several other newspapers.

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The reason I invented the Pillow with Cantilever Supports (also called the Buttpillow) and the Ergonomic Seating Cushion (an improvement on the Pillow with Cantilever Supports) was so that anyone with a sitting-related problem —  whether the individual was suffering with hemorrhoids, low back pain, sciatica, herniated spinal disc, prostatitis, pressure sores, vaginal pain or tailbone pain  — could use the cushion without everyone knowing what it was being used for.  If you bring a doughnut pillow to work, people will make fun of you. . .at least that is what happened to me.

It is also for reduction of risk factors that lead to musculoskeletal disorders or MSDs as well as DVTs.

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I found out seven years later that I had gotten several patents my lawyers told me I didn’t get when I received notices from the USPTO that it was time to pay my maintenance fees on the patents I didn’t know I had gotten; or, even worse, that I had lost my patent because I didn’t pay the maintenance fee when I didn’t know I had it in the first place.

I guess the lawyers had to prove they were right:   When I first started trying to patent products, they would say things to me like, “You are just a stupid court reporter; you are not going to be successful.”

I am seeking an open cell foam manufacturer in the United States.  I have until 2023 on this one patent and it has been quoted a lot lately by other inventors to the USPTO, so it is kind of now or the lawyers will be right. . .I will never be successful.

Anka in Inventor’s Digest for Buttpillow (my name is misspelled. . .it should be Loomos):

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