Driving is Risk Factor for Low Back Pain

Occupational Medicine, Vol. 48, No. 3., pp. 153-160, 1998, “Musculoskeletal Problems and Driving in Police Officers,” written by D. E. Gyi and J. M. Porter, Vehicle Ergonomics Group, Department of Design and Technology, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, United Kingdom:

In the above-mentioned study, the Occupational Health Department of a rural police force in the United Kingdom had concerns with relation to driving and its link to musculoskeletal disorders.

“There are now an increasing number of researchers whose work implicates prolonged exposure to car driving as a risk factor for low back pain.  However, such epidemiological studies examining the relationship between car driving and back pain or other musculoskeletal troubles are difficult to conduct.  Driving as a task involves prolonged sitting, a fixed posture, and vibration, any of which could directly lead to musculoskeletal trouble.  It is likely that symptoms arise from multiple relationships and influences, (Rey, P., 1979).”

“These police drivers are also deemed to be at particular risk because of the following:

  • They are generally tall males and wear bulky clothing such that seat adjustment may be insufficient to obtain a good posture.
  • They drive fleet cars where the seat and suspension are exposed to excessive wear and tear.
  • They often have to drive in rapid response situations such that they are exposed to fast acceleration and deceleration.
  • Driving is often followed by strenuous physical activity such as lifting and running.
  • They spend most of their eight-hour shift driving or sitting in their vehicle.
  • They often have to take back-seat passengers, such that tall males are unable to take advantage of any seat adjustments that do exist.”

“In a survey of 2,000 U.S. police officers, the number and types of health disorders reported b these officers over a 6-month period were similar to those found in the general public over a 12 month period, (Hurrel, J., 1984).”

The results of the above-mentioned study agree with the findings of other studies that indicate driving a car is a risk factor for the development of low back pain.

Four Boring Foam Studies

Four Boring Foam Studies:

1)     Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, Vol. 27, No. 3, 1990, Pages, 229-238,“Load-bearing Characteristics of Polyethylene Foam:  An Examination of Structural and Compression Properties,” written by Eric J. Kuncir, MSBE;  Roy. W. Wirta, BSME;  Frank L. Golbranson, M.D.:   This work was supported by a grant entitled:  “Foot Interface Pressure Study,” from the Department of Veterans Affairs Rehabilitation Research and Development Service and was conducted at the DVA Medical Center, San Diego, California, U.S.A.”

“The use of cellular foams in the orthotics and prosthetics industries is widespread and ranges from applications as shoe insole material to prosthetic limb inserts.

“It is our impression that orthotic and prosthetic practitioners select interface materials, including cellular foams, in an arbitrary fashion based on availability and personal knowledge.

“Contributing to the arbitrariness of material selection is a lack of published information on detailed mechanical properties of cellular foams . . . We have studied the structural and compression properties of cellular foams.

“This discussion is relevant to orthotists and prosthetists because it addresses an overview of the properties of cellular foams, the knowledge of which may be useful in the determination of the function of a particular foam material in load-bearing applications.”

“Cellular polyethylene foams are best described as a mass of bubbles composed of a plastic and a gas phase.  The polymer is distributed in the walls of the bubbles and the lines where the buttles intersect (Blair, E.A., 1967).

“The bubbles are referred to as cells, the lines of intersection are called ribs or strands, and the walls are called windows . . . Depending on the configuration of this two phase gas/solid system and on the synthetic material used, cellular plastics exhibit a wide range of mechanical properties.”

OPEN CELL VS. CLOSED CELL FOAMS

“In general, two major descriptions are offered to characterize structural features of cellular materials.

“An open cell material is one which has open windows leaving many cells interconnected in such a manner that gas may pass from one cell to another.

“Alternatively, closed cell materials are made up of discrete cells through which gasses do not pass freely.”

“A physical test of the mechanical behavior of a material can be done by continuously measuring the force required to develop a degree of compression.  This information is useful because it aids in an evaluation of a foam’s response under load-bearing conditions.”

Compression data or polyethylene foam obtained by Skochdopole, 1965, in which compressive load versus percent compression for polyethylene foams of increasing open cell character was plotted.

The data show that compressive load of polyethylene foam increases as fraction of open cells decreases.

“When there is a small fraction of open cells, the compression force is distributed over a larger number of cell walls and ribs thereby increasing the compressive resistance.

“At larger degrees of compression, the data presented indicates that compressive load increases as the fraction of open cells decreases . . . This implies that foams of increased open cell character must provide less resistance to escape of gasses, which explains the reduction in compression resistance as open cell character increases.”

“It can be concluded that the influence of cell geometry on the mechanical properties of cellular foams is significant.  Specifically, increased compression strength is acquired as the cell diameter decreases.  In addition, decreasing the fraction of open cells increases the required force for a given degree of compression.”

“Closed cell polyethylene foam materials exhibit both time-related and non-time-related properties under load-bearing conditions.  The non-time-related properties happen under rapid cyclic loading conditions . . . The time-related properties happen when a load is sustained either a static load or an extended period of cyclic loading.”

2)     Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, Vol. 27, No. 2, 1990, “Reduction of Sitting Pressures with Custom Contoured Cushions,”  written by Stephen Sprigle, Ph.D.; Kao-Chi Chung, Ph.D.;  Clifford E. Brubaker, Ph.D., University of Virginia Rehabilitation Engineering Center, U.S.A.:
The authors state the following:
“Previous research indicated that matching a cushion to the shape of the buttocks results in less tissue distortion and lower interface pressures.”
“Material studies were determined by examining the load-deflection curves for flat foams of 1, 2, and 3 inch thickness.”
“It was found that sitting on contoured foam resulted in a lower pressure distribution than sitting on flat foam; and sitting on soft foam resulted in a lower pressure distribution than sitting on a stiffer foam.”
“Loaded contoured foam demonstrated increased enveloping of the buttocks, decreased foam compression, and a more uniform pressure distribution.  These attributes are typical of a safer sitting surface and may indicate less disuse distortion.”

The authors make the following statements:

TISSUE TRAUMA

“Wheelchair users often sit 12 to 16 hours a day while participating in daily activities . . . special seating support especially for spinal cord injured (SCI) persons and others with insensate skin.”
“Over the past three decades, many studies have focused on the biomechanical aspects of decubitus formation.  Tissue trauma is now recognized as a multidimensional process with externally applied pressure being identified as a primary contributing factor, (Bennett, L.; Kanner, D.; Lee, B. K.; and Trainor, F.A., 1979; Krouskop, T.A., 1983).”

TISSUE DISTORTION VS. TISSUE TRAUMA

“Recently, tissue distortion has also been identified as a potentially damaging condition, (Chung, K.C., 1987; Swart, M.E., 1985).”
“These two risk factors are related because distortion results from the external forces being exerted on soft tissue.”
“The original analysis of contact stresses was published in 1881 by Heinrich Hertz.”

 

3)     American Journal of Nursing, 1987,“Sitting Easy:  How Six Pressure-Relieving Devices Stack Up”:   written by Robin Chagares, R.N., M.A., M.S.N.; and Bettie S. Jackson, RN, Ed.D., F.A.A.N., Montefiore Medical Center, N.Y., U.S.A.:

The authors open with the following statements (1987 prices):

PREVENTING SKIN BREAKDOWN IS A PRIORITY

 “A single pressure sore costs more than $8,000 to heal.  Multiply that cost by more than a million hospital and nursing home patients who will develop pressure sores this year, and you see why preventing skin breakdown is a health care priority, (Hargast, T., 1979; Staggs, K., 1983).”

INTRINSIC FACTORS

The authors include the following findings:

“A number of intrinsic (within the body) factors such as:
·        immobility,
·        poor circulation,
·        malnutrition,
·        and elderly skin contribute to the development of pressure sores.

EXTRINSIC FACTOR(S)

“The only extrinsic (coming from outside the body) factor is pressure.”

“A healthy individual can develop pressure sores in six to twelve hours if left undisturbed in the same position, (Hargast, T., 1979; Staggs, K., 1983; Torrence, C., 1981).”

6 Pressure­-Relieving Devices Tested:

·        air doughnut pillow;
·        water donut  pillow;
·        Eggcrate cushion;
·        Spencegel pad;
·        Sheepskin;
·        Cotton-filled disposable pillow

RESULTS

“Of the six different pressure-relieving devices studied, the air donut was least effective in reducing inter surface pressures.  In addition, subjects reported it to be quite uncomfortable to sit on.

People Should Have More Than 1 Pressure-Relieving Device

All the other devices reduced inter-surface pressure about equally . . . having more than one pressure relieving device to choose from allows selection based on individual patient comfort.

“Pressure on capillaries (the smallest blood vessels) over time leads to tissue necrosis (degeneration.)  None of the devices tested minimized sitting surface pressures generated when sitting in one position.  To prevent tissue damage, people must be able to shift their weight or be assisted to alternate pressure points.”

4)     J.  Biomechanics.  Vol.  15, No. 7, 1982, “Model Experiments to Study the Stress Distributions on a Seated Buttock,” Narender P. Reddy, Himanshu Patel, George Van B. Cochran, Biomechanics Research Unit, Helen Hayes Hospital; and John B. Brunski, Center for Biomedical Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, Ny, U.S.A.:
Buttock Stress States During Sitting

    “Mechanical stress states that develop in the buttock during sitting may exceed tissue tolerance and lead to decubitus ulcer formation in susceptible patients, such as those with spinal cord injury.
“The danger of this complication can be reduced by using suitable cushions to minimize stress magnitudes and gradients within soft tissues.
“In this investigation, a two-dimensional physical model of the buttock-cushion system was developed to aid in cushion design.”

5 Materials Selected for Initial Tests

“Although many cushion materials are in current commercial use, the following five representative materials were selected for these initial tests:

1)    Gel;
2)    Medium density foam;
3)    Soft foam;
4)    Stiff foam;
5)    Viscoelastic ‘T-Foam.’”

“In order of increasing maximum compressive stress generated in the buttock model, the material samples of equal thickness can be ranked as follows:

1)    Medium density foam;
2)    Soft foam;
3)    Gel;
4)    Viscoelastic foam;
5)    Stiff foam.”

“The enveloping property of a seat cushion is a measure of its tendency to wrap around the object it supports, (i.e., in the present case, the buttock model).  A good enveloping cushion provides a large contact area and a uniform stress distribution, (Chow, 1974; Cochran and Palmieri, 1979).’

6 Hours Sitting May Cause Pressure Sore

SITTING & PRESSURE
By Darren Salinger, M.D., OB/GYN
& Melanie Loomos, Inventor

In modern society, sitting takes up an increasing amount of time, both at home and at work. It has been concluded there is a considerable shift to sedentary work in industrialized countries (3).

1881 Analysis of Contact Stresses

The original analysis of contact stresses which lead to pressure-related problems while sitting was published in 1881 by Heinrich Hertz (5).

6 Hours Sitting May Cause Pressure Sore

A healthy individual can develop a pressure sore in six to twelve hours if left undisturbed in the same position (7). A single pressure sore costs more than $8,000 to heal. The yearly costs of treating pressure sores and related problems have been estimated to be almost $1 billion (9).

One study found that 63 percent of patients who sat for an unlimited period of time developed pressure sores whereas only 7 percent of patients developed pressure sores who sat for maximum periods of two hours (1).

Limiting sitting time is only one starting point in preventing pressure sores. Other possibilities include appropriate posture and pressure-reducing seat cushions (1).

In a test of six pressure-relieving devices, the air doughnut was found to be the least effective in reducing inter-surface pressures. None of the devices tested eliminated the inter-surface pressures generated by sitting in one position (7).

To prevent tissue damage, people must be able to shift their weight or be assisted to alternate pressure points (7).

External Pressure = 1/2 Internal Pressure

Externally measured pressure under the butt bones is only one half of the internal pressure. Given the pressures that are prevalent, Staarink (1995) found it amazing that more people do not get pressure ulcers (1).

Risk Factors for Pressure Sores

Studies have implicated factors such as posture and posture changes, impact loading of tissue, elevated temperature and humidity, age, nutritional status, general health, activity level, body stature and shear stress in the development of pressure sores (4).

Shear Force & Pressure Sores

The interest in shear stems from the observation that shear increases the possibility of causing a pressure sore (6). In 1958, it was Reichel who started to focus attention on shear force, which is defined as a force parallel to a surface (2). It is important to reduce shear force as much as possible (6). Avoidance of shear force is as important as avoidance of direct pressure (8).

Snijders (1984) showed that the inclination and the position of a backrest as well as the angle of the seat surface influence the shear force on the seat (3). The proper combination of backrest and seat inclination can reduce shear forces on the seat and on the sitter.

In tests done on healthy young subjects, it was found that when little shear is accepted, a fixed inclination between seat and backrest should be chosen between 90 degrees and 95 degrees (3). When a person is sitting down, the weight of the body is distributed over the supporting surfaces. The distributed shear and pressure result in forces that act on four major body points:
▪ The Feet
▪ The Butt Bones
▪ The Top of the Hip Bones
▪ The Chest

Shear Stresses Reduced – 90N to 5N

In a study measuring shear stresses on wheelchairs, using healthy young subjects, different seat angles were tested. Previous measurements showed that a total shear force on the seat of a foldable wheelchair could become as high as 90N when the seat is horizontal (2). When the seat slant is 8 degrees forward, the shear force becomes smaller than 5N in healthy subjects (2). The assumption is made that if the unfavorable effect of shear stress can be measured in healthy, young subjects, the effect for the hospitalized geriatric and paraplegic population will be even worse (2).

Enveloping Cushion

The enveloping property of a seat cushion is a measure of its tendency to wrap around the object it supports. When the body adopts a sitting posture, the weight of the body is distributed over the supporting surfaces (3). A good enveloping cushion provides a large contact area and a uniform stress distribution (9).

Medium density foam results in the lowest shear stresses and compressive stresses tested. Soft foam results in the next lowest shear and compressive stresses because soft foam tends to “bottom out” and cause pressure from the surface below the foam.

Caution: Temperature Sensitive Foam

Researchers caution against materials in seat surfaces that react to body temperature because there is a risk of rising temperatures and increased humidity which can lead to pressure sores (1), as well as other pressure-related problems.

Researchers conclude that the use of armrests in the case of healthy persons has a very limited pressure-reducing effect but may help stabilize posture.

  1. Applied Nursing Research, Vol. 12, No. 3, August 1999, pp. 136-142, “Sitting Posture and Prevention of Pressure Ulcers,” written by Tom Defloor, MScN, N.N.; and Maria H.F. Grypdonck, Ph.D., RN, Nursing Sciences, University of Gent, Belgium.
  2.  Scandinavian Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 29: 131-136, 1997, “Shear Stress Measured on Beds and Wheelchairs,” written by R.H.M. Goossens, Ph.D.; C.J. Snijders, Ph.D., T.G. Holscher, Mac; W. Chr. Heerens, Ph.D.; and A. E. Holman, MSc.
  3.  Journal of Biomechanics, Vol. 28, No. 2, pp. 225-230, 1995, “Design Criteria for the Reduction of Shear Forces in Beds and Seats,” written by R.H.M. Goossens and C.J. Snijders, Erasmus University, Rotterdam, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biomedical Physics and Technology, The Netherlands.
  4. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, Vol. 29, No. 4, 1992, pp. 21 – 31, Department of Veterans Affairs, “Comparative Effects of Posture on Pressure and Shear at the Body-Seat Interface,” written by Douglas A. Hobson, Ph.D., School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, P.A. U.S.A.
  5.  Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, Vol. 27, No. 2, 1990, pp. 135 – 140, Department of Veterans Affairs, “Reduction of Sitting Pressures with Custom Contoured Cushions,” written by Stephen Sprigle, Ph.D.; Kao-Chi Chung, Ph.D.; Clifford E. Brubaker, Ph.D., University of Virginia, Rehabilitation Engineering Center, U.S.A.
  6.  Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, Vol. 27, No. 3, 1990, pp. 239 – 246, Department of Veterans Affairs, “Sitting Forces and Wheelchair Mechanics,” written by Paul Gilsdorf, B.S.; Robert Patterson, Ph.D.; Steven Fisher, M.D.; Nancy Appel, P.T., Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Minnesota, U.S.A.
  7.  American Journal of Nursing, 1987, “Sitting Easy: How Six Pressure-Relieving Devices Stack up,” written by Robin Charges, RN, M.A., M.S.N.; and Bettie S. Jackson, RN, Ed.D., F.A.A.N., Montefiore Medical Center, N.Y., U.S.A.
  8.  Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil., Vol. 60, July, 1979, “Shear vs. Pressure as Causative Factors in Skin Blood Flow Occlusion,” written by Leon Bennett, MAE; David Kavner, DEng; Bok K. Lee, M.D.; Frieda A. Trainor, Ph.D., Veterans Administration Prosthetic Center, N.Y., U.S.A.
  9.  J. Biomechanics, Vol. 15, No. 7, 1982, “Model Experiments to Study the Stress Distributions in a Seated Buttock,” Narender P. Reddy, Himanshu Patel, George Van B. Cochran, Biomechanics Research Unit, Helen Hayes Hospital; and John B. Brunski, Center for Biomedical Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, N.Y., U.S.A.

Forward Bending & Low Back Pain

Spine, Volume 21, Number 1, pp. 71-78, 1996, “Analysis of Lumbar Spine and Hip Motion During Forward Bending in Subjects With and Without a History of Low Back Pain,” written by Marcia A. Esola, M.S., P.T.; Philip W. McClure, M.S., P.T.; G. Kelley Fitzgerald, M.S., P.T.; and Sorin Siegler, Ph.D., U.S.A.:

In this study, a motion analysis system was used to measure the amount and velocity of lumbar spine and hip motion during forward bending.

The authors begin by citing the following previous findings:

EPIDEMIC OF LOW BACK PAIN

“Disorders of the low back have reached epidemic proportions, (DeRosa, C.P., 1992).”

BILLIONS OF $$$ ANNUALLY, LOST WORK TIME & WORKERS’ COMP CLAIMS

“Epidemiologic studies show that billions of dollars are spent annually on the problem of low back pain, which is one of the most commonly-cited problems for lost work time in industry and Workers’ Compensation claims, (Chase, J.A., 1992; Frymoyer, J.W., 1988; and Pope, M.H., et al., 1991).”

FREQUENT FORWARD BENDING & LOW BACK PAIN

“Researchers have shown an association between frequent forward bending and low back pain, (Berquist-Ullman, M., et al., 1977; Magora, A., 1973; Mellin, G., 1986; Punnett, L, et al., 1991; Svensson H.O., et al., 1989; Videman T., et al., 1989).”

SLOUCHING WHILE SEATED / BENDING AT THE WAIST WHILE STANDING

“Prolonged sitting with the lumbar spine in a flexed position (slouching) and flexed standing postures (bending at the waist) are also associated with an increased risk of low back pain, (Anderson, G.B.J., 1991; Berquist-Ullman, M., et al., 1977; Magora, A., 1972; Punnett, L., et al., 1991; Riihimaki, H., et al., 1989).”

OCCUPATIONS INVOLVING REPETITIVE FORWARD BENDING

“Saunders reports that people with herniated inter-vertebral discs often have a history of an activity or occupation involving repetitive forward bending.”

“Nachemson (1981) has shown that inter-vertebral disc pressure increases 20 percent over that measured in standing when forward bending 20 degrees, and increases 100 percent when bending up to 40 degrees.”

INADEQUATE HIP FLEXIBILITY & EXCESSIVE LUMBAR MOTION

“It has been suggested that inadequate hip flexibility coupled with excessive lumbar motion during forward bending results in low back pain, (Biering-Sorenson, F., 1984; Sahramann, S.A., 1993). . .Sahramann (1993) suggests that excessive lumbar mobility leads to tissue overloading, micro-trauma, and ultimately the development of degenerative joint and disc disease. A person may experience low back pain at any stage of this sequence of events.

FORWARD BENDING = RISK FACTOR FOR LOW BACK PAIN

“Forward bending has been clearly recognized as a risk factor for low back pain. Altered movement patterns of the lumbar spine and hips during forward bending may help explain why forward bending is a risk factor for the development of low back pain.”

HAMSTRING STRETCHING HELPFUL 

In the conclusions, the authors state: “The results provide quantitative data to guide clinical assessment of forward bending motion.  Results also suggest that although people with a history of low back pain have amounts of lumbar spine and hip motion during forward bending similar to those of healthy subjects, the pattern of motion is different.  It may be desirable to teach patients with a history of low back pain to use more hip motion during early forward bending, and hamstring stretching may be helpful for encouraging earlier hip motion.”

MAINTENANCE OF LUMBAR LORDOSIS = DECREASED RISK OF LOW BACK PAIN,  ISCHIUM (BUTT BONE) PAIN, & COCCYX (TAIL BONE) PAIN

MAINTENANCE OF LUMBAR LORDOSIS = DECREASED RISK OF LOW BACK PAIN,  ISCHIUM (BUTT BONE) PAIN, & COCCYX (TAIL BONE) PAIN

Spine, Volume 22, Number 21, pp. 2571-2574, 1997, “Lumbar Lordosis, Effects of Sitting and Standing,” written by Michael J. Lord, M.D.; John M. Small, M.D.; Jocylane M. Dinsay, R.N., M.N.; and Robert G. Watkins, M.D., Kerlan-Jobe Orthopedic Clinic, California, U.S.A.:

The objective of the above-mentioned study was to document changes in segmental and total lumbar lordosis (inward curvature of the lumbar spine) between sitting and standing radiographs (x-rays).

“One hundred and nine patients with low back pain underwent radiography in the sitting and standing positions. The patients ranged in age from 21 years to 83 years (mean age, 47 years) and had had no prior lumbar spine fusion or clinical deformity. Seventy men and 39 women took part in the study.”

DECREASED LUMBAR LORDOSIS & LOW BACK PAIN

In their discussion, the authors state the following:

“Keegan (1953) in a study of the relationship between lordosis and sitting, found the most important factor in low back pain with prolonged sitting to be decreased trunk-thigh angle with consequent fattening of the lumbar curve.  Use of a lumbar roll that increases lordosis has been found to decrease low back pain, (Williams, A.M., et al., 1991).”

DECREASED LUMBAR LORDOSIS & BUTT PAIN / TAIL-BONE PAIN

“With decreased lordosis, sitting pressure increases over the ischium (butt bones) and coccyx (tail-bone) with resultant pain, (Drummond, D.S., et al., 1982 and 1985; Smith, R.M., et al., 1992.)

The following conclusions were made:

“Segmental and total lordosis were significantly different in the sitting and standing postures. Lordosis increased almost 50 percent when the patients moved from the sitting to the standing position. The clinical significance of this data may pertain to:

  1. The known correlation of increased intra-discal pressure with sitting, which may be caused by this decrease in lordosis;
  2. To the benefit of a sitting lumbar support that increases lordosis; and
  3. To the consideration of an appropriate degree of lordosis in fusion of the lumbar spine.”

 

 

 

Driving = Risk factor for Low Back Pain

Occupational Medicine, Vol. 48, No. 3., pp. 153-160, 1998, “Musculoskeletal Problems and Driving in Police Officers,” written by D. E. Gyi and J. M. Porter, Vehicle Ergonomics Group, Department of Design and Technology, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, United Kingdom:

In the above-mentioned study, the Occupational Health Department of a rural police force in the United Kingdom had concerns with relation to driving and its link to musculoskeletal disorders.

“There are now an increasing number of researchers whose work implicates prolonged exposure to car driving as a risk factor for low back pain.  However, such epidemiological studies examining the relationship between car driving and back pain or other musculoskeletal troubles are difficult to conduct.  Driving as a task involves prolonged sitting, a fixed posture, and vibration, any of which could directly lead to musculoskeletal trouble.  It is likely that symptoms arise from multiple relationships and influences, (Rey, P., 1979).”

“These police drivers are also deemed to be at particular risk because of the following:

  • They are generally tall males and wear bulky clothing such that seat adjustment may be insufficient to obtain a good posture.
  • They drive fleet cars where the seat and suspension are exposed to excessive wear and tear.
  • They often have to drive in rapid response situations such that they are exposed to fast acceleration and deceleration.
  • Driving is often followed by strenuous physical activity such as lifting and running.
  • They spend most of their eight-hour shift driving or sitting in their vehicle.
  • They often have to take back-seat passengers, such that tall males are unable to take advantage of any seat adjustments that do exist.”

“In a survey of 2,000 U.S. police officers, the number and types of health disorders reported b these officers over a 6-month period were similar to those found in the general public over a 12 month period, (Hurrel, J., 1984).”

The results of the above-mentioned study agree with the findings of other studies that indicate driving a car is a risk factor for the development of low back pain.

NO LIFEGUARD ON DUTY

Prevention is Better than Treatment 

Scan 8Now that most people spend a lot of their time doing repetitive motions, such as Gaming, Facebooking,  Twittering, using social media and all other types of interactions with computers,  musculoskeletal disorders, such as carpal tunnel syndrome, can happen outside the workplace.

You do not want to end up in pain for the rest of your life, so remember to take a break at least every hour from typing activities.

If you must spend your day sitting, as some people do, such as stenographers, remember to stand up at least once every hour.  While sitting, try to maintain your lumbar curve.  In other words, don’t slouch.

Scan 9
Twin stenographers sitting on Buttpillows, Patented Ergonomic Seating Cushions.

Sitting and the Prostate

Standing frequently throughout the day is especially important for men.  There is new research that links prolonged sitting to swelling of the prostate or prostatitis, and there is also research that links prostatitis to prostate cancer.  Prostatitis can affect the sexual health of men usually beginning at about the age of 50; so all you men out there, stand up at least once every hour.