Beyond the costs of an injury — BWC Blog

A good read about prevention of injury and the need to address health disparities.

By Mark Leung, BWC Technical Medical Specialist, Recently promoted from the BWC Safety & Hygiene Fellowship program Occupational health and safety has been a public health focus for many years. Emphasizing worker protection and well-being advances the overall goal of reducing negative health outcomes in the future. The need to address health disparities within the […]

via Beyond the costs of an injury — BWC Blog

Driving is Risk Factor for Low Back Pain

Occupational Medicine, Vol. 48, No. 3., pp. 153-160, 1998, “Musculoskeletal Problems and Driving in Police Officers,” written by D. E. Gyi and J. M. Porter, Vehicle Ergonomics Group, Department of Design and Technology, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, United Kingdom:

In the above-mentioned study, the Occupational Health Department of a rural police force in the United Kingdom had concerns with relation to driving and its link to musculoskeletal disorders.

“There are now an increasing number of researchers whose work implicates prolonged exposure to car driving as a risk factor for low back pain.  However, such epidemiological studies examining the relationship between car driving and back pain or other musculoskeletal troubles are difficult to conduct.  Driving as a task involves prolonged sitting, a fixed posture, and vibration, any of which could directly lead to musculoskeletal trouble.  It is likely that symptoms arise from multiple relationships and influences, (Rey, P., 1979).”

“These police drivers are also deemed to be at particular risk because of the following:

  • They are generally tall males and wear bulky clothing such that seat adjustment may be insufficient to obtain a good posture.
  • They drive fleet cars where the seat and suspension are exposed to excessive wear and tear.
  • They often have to drive in rapid response situations such that they are exposed to fast acceleration and deceleration.
  • Driving is often followed by strenuous physical activity such as lifting and running.
  • They spend most of their eight-hour shift driving or sitting in their vehicle.
  • They often have to take back-seat passengers, such that tall males are unable to take advantage of any seat adjustments that do exist.”

“In a survey of 2,000 U.S. police officers, the number and types of health disorders reported b these officers over a 6-month period were similar to those found in the general public over a 12 month period, (Hurrel, J., 1984).”

The results of the above-mentioned study agree with the findings of other studies that indicate driving a car is a risk factor for the development of low back pain.

Forward Bending & Low Back Pain

Spine, Volume 21, Number 1, pp. 71-78, 1996, “Analysis of Lumbar Spine and Hip Motion During Forward Bending in Subjects With and Without a History of Low Back Pain,” written by Marcia A. Esola, M.S., P.T.; Philip W. McClure, M.S., P.T.; G. Kelley Fitzgerald, M.S., P.T.; and Sorin Siegler, Ph.D., U.S.A.:

In this study, a motion analysis system was used to measure the amount and velocity of lumbar spine and hip motion during forward bending.

The authors begin by citing the following previous findings:

EPIDEMIC OF LOW BACK PAIN

“Disorders of the low back have reached epidemic proportions, (DeRosa, C.P., 1992).”

BILLIONS OF $$$ ANNUALLY, LOST WORK TIME & WORKERS’ COMP CLAIMS

“Epidemiologic studies show that billions of dollars are spent annually on the problem of low back pain, which is one of the most commonly-cited problems for lost work time in industry and Workers’ Compensation claims, (Chase, J.A., 1992; Frymoyer, J.W., 1988; and Pope, M.H., et al., 1991).”

FREQUENT FORWARD BENDING & LOW BACK PAIN

“Researchers have shown an association between frequent forward bending and low back pain, (Berquist-Ullman, M., et al., 1977; Magora, A., 1973; Mellin, G., 1986; Punnett, L, et al., 1991; Svensson H.O., et al., 1989; Videman T., et al., 1989).”

SLOUCHING WHILE SEATED / BENDING AT THE WAIST WHILE STANDING

“Prolonged sitting with the lumbar spine in a flexed position (slouching) and flexed standing postures (bending at the waist) are also associated with an increased risk of low back pain, (Anderson, G.B.J., 1991; Berquist-Ullman, M., et al., 1977; Magora, A., 1972; Punnett, L., et al., 1991; Riihimaki, H., et al., 1989).”

OCCUPATIONS INVOLVING REPETITIVE FORWARD BENDING

“Saunders reports that people with herniated inter-vertebral discs often have a history of an activity or occupation involving repetitive forward bending.”

“Nachemson (1981) has shown that inter-vertebral disc pressure increases 20 percent over that measured in standing when forward bending 20 degrees, and increases 100 percent when bending up to 40 degrees.”

INADEQUATE HIP FLEXIBILITY & EXCESSIVE LUMBAR MOTION

“It has been suggested that inadequate hip flexibility coupled with excessive lumbar motion during forward bending results in low back pain, (Biering-Sorenson, F., 1984; Sahramann, S.A., 1993). . .Sahramann (1993) suggests that excessive lumbar mobility leads to tissue overloading, micro-trauma, and ultimately the development of degenerative joint and disc disease. A person may experience low back pain at any stage of this sequence of events.

FORWARD BENDING = RISK FACTOR FOR LOW BACK PAIN

“Forward bending has been clearly recognized as a risk factor for low back pain. Altered movement patterns of the lumbar spine and hips during forward bending may help explain why forward bending is a risk factor for the development of low back pain.”

HAMSTRING STRETCHING HELPFUL 

In the conclusions, the authors state: “The results provide quantitative data to guide clinical assessment of forward bending motion.  Results also suggest that although people with a history of low back pain have amounts of lumbar spine and hip motion during forward bending similar to those of healthy subjects, the pattern of motion is different.  It may be desirable to teach patients with a history of low back pain to use more hip motion during early forward bending, and hamstring stretching may be helpful for encouraging earlier hip motion.”

OSHA Revised Whistleblower Complaint

Trade Release

Department of Labor, United States of America

U.S. Department of Labor
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
Office of Communications
Washington, D.C.
www.osha.gov

For Immediate Release
July 28, 2017
Contact: Office of Communications
Phone: 202-693-1999

OSHA revises its online whistleblower complaint form

WASHINGTON – The Occupational Safety and Health Administration recently revised its online whistleblower complaint form to help users file a complaint with the appropriate agency. The form provides workers with another option for submitting retaliation complaints to the U.S. Department of Labor’s OSHA.

The updated form guides individuals as they file a complaint through the process, providing essential questions at the beginning so they can better understand and exercise their rights under relevant laws. One significant improvement to the system includes pop-up boxes with information about various agencies for individuals who indicate that they have engaged in protected activity that may be addressed by an agency other than OSHA. The new form is available in English and Spanish.

“Workers who report unsafe conditions and wrongdoing have a range of legal protections from retaliation,” said Deputy Assistant Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and Health Loren Sweatt. “The revised online complaint form works to ensure whistleblowers file their complaints with the appropriate federal agency for prompt action.”

In addition to the online form, workers can file complaints by fax, mail, or hand-delivery; contacting the agency at 800-321-6742; or calling an OSHA regional or area office.

OSHA enforces the whistleblower provisions of 22 statutes protecting employees who report violations of various securities laws, trucking, airline, nuclear power, pipeline, environmental, rail, public transportation, workplace safety and health, and consumer protection laws. Detailed information on employee whistleblower rights, including fact sheets, is available online at http://www.whistleblowers.gov/.

Under the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, employers are responsible for providing safe and healthful workplaces for their employees. OSHA’s role is to ensure these conditions for America’s working men and women by setting and enforcing standards, and providing training, education and assistance. For more information, visit www.osha.gov.

# # #

MAINTENANCE OF LUMBAR LORDOSIS = DECREASED RISK OF LOW BACK PAIN,  ISCHIUM (BUTT BONE) PAIN, & COCCYX (TAIL BONE) PAIN

MAINTENANCE OF LUMBAR LORDOSIS = DECREASED RISK OF LOW BACK PAIN,  ISCHIUM (BUTT BONE) PAIN, & COCCYX (TAIL BONE) PAIN

Spine, Volume 22, Number 21, pp. 2571-2574, 1997, “Lumbar Lordosis, Effects of Sitting and Standing,” written by Michael J. Lord, M.D.; John M. Small, M.D.; Jocylane M. Dinsay, R.N., M.N.; and Robert G. Watkins, M.D., Kerlan-Jobe Orthopedic Clinic, California, U.S.A.:

The objective of the above-mentioned study was to document changes in segmental and total lumbar lordosis (inward curvature of the lumbar spine) between sitting and standing radiographs (x-rays).

“One hundred and nine patients with low back pain underwent radiography in the sitting and standing positions. The patients ranged in age from 21 years to 83 years (mean age, 47 years) and had had no prior lumbar spine fusion or clinical deformity. Seventy men and 39 women took part in the study.”

DECREASED LUMBAR LORDOSIS & LOW BACK PAIN

In their discussion, the authors state the following:

“Keegan (1953) in a study of the relationship between lordosis and sitting, found the most important factor in low back pain with prolonged sitting to be decreased trunk-thigh angle with consequent fattening of the lumbar curve.  Use of a lumbar roll that increases lordosis has been found to decrease low back pain, (Williams, A.M., et al., 1991).”

DECREASED LUMBAR LORDOSIS & BUTT PAIN / TAIL-BONE PAIN

“With decreased lordosis, sitting pressure increases over the ischium (butt bones) and coccyx (tail-bone) with resultant pain, (Drummond, D.S., et al., 1982 and 1985; Smith, R.M., et al., 1992.)

The following conclusions were made:

“Segmental and total lordosis were significantly different in the sitting and standing postures. Lordosis increased almost 50 percent when the patients moved from the sitting to the standing position. The clinical significance of this data may pertain to:

  1. The known correlation of increased intra-discal pressure with sitting, which may be caused by this decrease in lordosis;
  2. To the benefit of a sitting lumbar support that increases lordosis; and
  3. To the consideration of an appropriate degree of lordosis in fusion of the lumbar spine.”

 

 

 

Trade Release – OSHA – electronically submit injury and illness data on August 1, 2017 – Form 300

OSHA Electronic Filing August 1, 2017

Trade Release

Department of Labor, United States of America

U.S. Department of Labor
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
Office of Communications
Washington, D.C.
www.osha.gov
For Immediate Release
July 14, 2017
Contact: Office of Communications
Phone: 202-693-1999

OSHA launches application to electronically submit injury and illness data on August 1

WASHINGTON – The Occupational Safety and Health Administration will launch on Aug. 1, 2017, the Injury Tracking Application (ITA). The Web-based form allows employers to electronically submit required injury and illness data from their completed 2016 OSHA Form 300A. The application will be accessible from the ITA webpage.
Last month, OSHA published a notice of proposed rulemaking to extend the deadline for submitting 2016 Form 300A to Dec. 1, 2017, to allow affected entities sufficient time to familiarize themselves with the electronic reporting system, and to provide the new administration an opportunity to review the new electronic reporting requirements prior to their implementation.
The data submission process involves four steps: (1) Creating an establishment; (2) adding 300A summary data; (3) submitting data to OSHA; and (4) reviewing the confirmation email. The secure website offers three options for data submission. One option will enable users to manually enter data into a web form. Another option will give users the ability to upload a CSV file to process single or multiple establishments at the same time. A third option will allow users of automated recordkeeping systems to transmit data electronically via an application programming interface.
The ITA webpage also includes information on reporting requirements, a list of frequently asked questions and a link to request assistance with completing the form.
Under the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, employers are responsible for providing safe and healthful workplaces for their employees. OSHA’s role is to ensure these conditions for America’s working men and women by setting and enforcing standards, and providing training, education and assistance. For more information, visit www.osha.gov.
# # #

Driving = Risk factor for Low Back Pain

Occupational Medicine, Vol. 48, No. 3., pp. 153-160, 1998, “Musculoskeletal Problems and Driving in Police Officers,” written by D. E. Gyi and J. M. Porter, Vehicle Ergonomics Group, Department of Design and Technology, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, United Kingdom:

In the above-mentioned study, the Occupational Health Department of a rural police force in the United Kingdom had concerns with relation to driving and its link to musculoskeletal disorders.

“There are now an increasing number of researchers whose work implicates prolonged exposure to car driving as a risk factor for low back pain.  However, such epidemiological studies examining the relationship between car driving and back pain or other musculoskeletal troubles are difficult to conduct.  Driving as a task involves prolonged sitting, a fixed posture, and vibration, any of which could directly lead to musculoskeletal trouble.  It is likely that symptoms arise from multiple relationships and influences, (Rey, P., 1979).”

“These police drivers are also deemed to be at particular risk because of the following:

  • They are generally tall males and wear bulky clothing such that seat adjustment may be insufficient to obtain a good posture.
  • They drive fleet cars where the seat and suspension are exposed to excessive wear and tear.
  • They often have to drive in rapid response situations such that they are exposed to fast acceleration and deceleration.
  • Driving is often followed by strenuous physical activity such as lifting and running.
  • They spend most of their eight-hour shift driving or sitting in their vehicle.
  • They often have to take back-seat passengers, such that tall males are unable to take advantage of any seat adjustments that do exist.”

“In a survey of 2,000 U.S. police officers, the number and types of health disorders reported b these officers over a 6-month period were similar to those found in the general public over a 12 month period, (Hurrel, J., 1984).”

The results of the above-mentioned study agree with the findings of other studies that indicate driving a car is a risk factor for the development of low back pain.